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Of the 1545 men who did time on Alcatraz, only a handful were notorious-among them, Al "Scarface" Capone, "Doc" Barker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Floyd Hamilton, and Robert Stroud, the "Birdman of Alcatraz" (who actually conducted his famous bird studies when he was imprisoned at Leavenworth). Most of the inmates were men who had proved to be problems in other prisons populations-escape risks and troublemakers.